Starkey Research & Clinical Blog

Modern Remote Microphones Greatly Improve Speech Understanding in Noise

Rodemerk, K. & Galster, J. (2015).  The benefit of remote microphones using four wireless protocols. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 1-8.

Wireless hearing aids have made remote microphones more accessible, affordable, and easier to use. As a result, use of these systems has become more common. Most hearing aid developers now offer remote microphones that transmit at different wireless frequencies than the comparatively traditional FM system. Some of these system pair directly with hearing aids via 900MHz or 2.4GHz wireless protocols, whereas others communicate via a receiver boot that is physically attached to the hearing aids, or an intermediate device that is worn around the neck or on the lapel, most of these intermediate act as a relay that receives a Bluetooth audio signal from the remote microphone, translating it to a wireless signal that can be received by the hearing aid. The goal of all of these systems is to provide the benefits of a clean speech input; including the ability to overcome distance, reverberation and noise to provide a consistently high-quality speech signal to the listener.

The purpose of the current study was to compare the performance of four commercially available hearing aid/remote microphone systems and to assess their benefits for hearing aid users.  Sixteen hearing-impaired individuals participated in the study. There were ten females and six males and their mean age was 68.5 years with a range from 52-81 years. All subjects had bilateral, symmetrical, sensorineural hearing loss. Ten participants were experienced hearing aid users and six were non-users, though hearing aid experience was not specifically examined in this study.

For the purposes of the study, participants were fitted with three bilateral sets of hearing aids from three different hearing aid manufacturers, paired with four different remote microphone systems. One set of aids communicated directly with a remote microphone via a 900MHz signal, another set communicated directly with the remote microphone via a 2.4GHz signal. The third pair of aids worked with either an FM remote microphone transmitter and FM receiver boot or a remote microphone used with an intermediate Bluetooth receiver that transmitted information to the hearing aids via a magnetic wireless protocol: this set of hearing aids was used in two of the four remote microphone conditions in this study.

Speech recognition was assessed using the HINT test (Nilsson et al., 1994). The HINT sentences were presented with continuous, 55dB speech-shaped noise, delivered through four speakers surrounding the listener at 45, 135, 225 and 315 degrees. Sentence stimuli were presented at a 0-degree azimuth, at levels that were systematically varied to arrive at the level required to achieve a 50% correct score. Twenty sentences were presented in each listening condition and the order of manufacturer and listening conditions were randomized for each participant. Each listening condition was assessed at two talker-listener distances; with the listener seated 6 feet away from the talker loudspeaker and again at 12 feet away from the loudspeaker.

Speech recognition was assessed under four listening conditions:

1.         Unaided

2.         Hearing aid only – omnidirectional

3.         Remote microphone only (hearing aid microphones off)

4.         Remote microphone plus hearing aid microphones (equal contribution from remote and HA microphones)

For the remote microphone only conditions, all four remote microphone systems yielded speech recognition scores that were 11-15dB better than unaided and hearing aid only conditions. There were no significant differences among the four remote microphone systems. This pattern of results was consistent when the listener was seated six feet and twelve feet from the loudspeaker.

Similar results were found for the remote microphone plus hearing aid conditions, in that all four remote microphone conditions were better than the unaided or hearing aid alone conditions. However, only three of the four hearing aid/remote microphone systems were comparable to each other in this condition: the FM, Bluetooth, and 900MHz models. The 2.4GHz model yielded significantly poorer scores than the other systems when the hearing aid microphone was used in combination with the remote microphone. As in the remote microphone only condition, results for the remote microphone plus hearing aid condition were comparable for the listening distances of 6 feet and 12 feet.

All four of the remote microphone systems evaluated in this study improved speech recognition scores from 6 to 16dB, a range comparable to previous reports of performance with FM systems (Hawkins, 1984; Boothroyd, 2004; Lewis, 2008). These results indicate that hearing aid users who experience difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments could expect benefit from any of the systems that were evaluated in this study.  The talker-listener distances examined here are comparable to those examined in previous studies and represent typical situations in which hearing aid users might listen to other conversational participants in everyday situations.

This study showed that when the hearing aid microphone was turned on, providing equal contribution to the remote microphone, the speech recognition benefit was less than that measured with the remote streaming microphone alone, though there was still a significant improvement over unaided and hearing aid only conditions.  This is in agreement with previous studies that reported decreased FM benefit when the hearing aid microphone level was equal to the FM microphone, as compared to FM alone (Boothroyd & Iglehart, 1998). However, many remote microphones allow the hearing aid microphone level to be adjusted in the software. The optimal hearing aid microphone attenuation for remote microphone use requires further examination and may vary with environment and each patients goals for listening.

This study provides compelling support for the benefits of remote microphone systems and lays the groundwork for further examination of remote microphones and how they interact with hearing aid programming parameters and a variety of acoustic environments. Of clinical note was the fact that the research audiologists supporting data collection quickly learned the importance of counseling for successful use of remote microphones. For instance, it was apparent that many participants expected table top placement of a remote microphone would yield benefits similar to those experienced when the remote microphone was place near the talker’s mouth. This point of confusion was clarified through live demonstration of the remote microphone at the time of fitting, during which they will clearly hear that talker’s voice becomes much quieter as the remote microphone is moved away from the talker’s mouth. The remote microphone can be an extremely useful tool but prescription must be accompanied by sufficient counseling and in-office demonstration time.



Boothroyd, A. (2004). Hearing aid accessories for adults: the remote FM microphone. Ear and Hearing 25 (1), 22-23.

Boothroyd, A. & Iglehart, F. (1998). Experiments with classroom FM amplification. Ear and Hearing 19 (3), 202-217.

Hawkins, D. (1984). Comparisons of speech recognition in noise by mildly-to-moderately hearing-impaired children using hearing aids and FM systems. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 49(4): 409-418.

Lewis, D. (2008). Trends in classroom amplification. Contemporary Issues in Communication Sciences and Disorders 35, 122-132.

Nilsson, M., Soli, S. & Sullivan, J. (1994). Development of the Hearing in Noise Test for the measurement of speech reception thresholds in quiet and in noise. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 95(2), 1085-1099.

Rodemerk, K. & Galster, J. (2015).  The benefit of remote microphones using four wireless protocols. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 1-8.